Kogan Cave is located in Lorestan province, near the city of Khorramabad. To reach the cave, you have to move from Khorramabad to Pol-e Zal on the Khorramabad-Pol-e-Zal highway. After 50 km from the highway and 6 km to the east to reach Kogan Cave. The Kogan hand-digging cave is located in a narrow, long, and green valley.
What is hand-digging architecture?
In ancient times, by digging natural rocks in the mountains and creating holes, man gradually turned a small space into a large space and used it as a house or tomb. In other words, rock or hand architecture is not made of ordinary materials but is created in the heart of natural rocks.
Entrance to Kogan Cave
Currently, access to the cave is through the recently built stairs. It is possible that in the past the entrance door of the cave was at the top of it, because in the upper part of Kogan cave in a path with a width of 2-3 meters, the remains of 10 ancient stairs can be seen, which are lost while their direction is down.
History and use of Kogan Cave
The exact date of construction of Kogan Cave is not known. Parthian tombs, Parthian coins and Parthian pottery discovered in this area show that Kogan Cave was fully alive and used during the Parthian era. The available evidence, such as its defensive aspects, shows the importance of this place. Considering the method of construction and the existence of numerous water reservoirs, it seems that the cave was used as a religious place or shrine.
How many parts is Kogan Cave divided into?
Kogan Cave has three levels that include 15 different rooms.
Room number 1
If we enter the cave from the main entrance, we will first enter a room with a square plan with 24 meters and a height of 2 meters. Across the south side of the pool room, the floor of which is two meters below the floor of the room, and along with the pool, fovea has been dug in the floor and walls of the room, which were probably created to roof the pool. In some parts, water drops to drip from the roof, which is more common in winter.
Room number 2
The plan of this room is almost square with an area of about 12 meters and a height of 2 meters. Access from this room to the next room is possible by metal stairs, part by concrete stairs, and part by stairs dug out of the mountain (ancient stairs). The humidity of this room is higher than in the previous room.
Room number 3
Climbing three concrete stairs, six metal stairs, and six ancient stairs, we reach a small space. This room has an arched ceiling. The floor plan of the room is square and has dimensions of 2 by 2 meters. A niche has been dug in the south wall of the room. And on its western side, there is a window facing room number 4.
Room number 4
At the entrance of Room 4 of Kogan Cave, the remains of two or three ancient steps can be seen. This room with an area of 28 meters is one of the largest rooms in Kogan Cave. In the western part of this room, there is a corridor that leads to room number 5. Room No. 4 is very humid as the previous spaces, and in winter you can hear the constant sound of water dripping from the ceiling to the floor of the room.
Rooms 5 and 6
These rooms are very small rooms with an area of less than 6 meters.
Room number 7
The entrance to Room 7 is 4 meters higher than the previous room. It is not clear how access to Room 7 was in the past. But today, metal stairs allow us to do this. Room 7 is located between rooms 8 and 9 and there is no wall between them.
Room number 8
Room 8 is located to the west of Room 7 with a height difference of 1.5 meters below it. This space, measuring 1.8 by 5.5 meters, is like a corridor with two openings at the end of the cave wall. When we stand facing the openings, the entrance to room 12 can be seen on the left, and on the right, the entrance to room 17 (located below room 7) can be seen.
Room number 9
To reach Room 9, we have to cross a metal bridge. This room is more like a porch and opens to the Kogan Valley from the north. This porch-like place completely dominates the valley and the mountains in front of it.
Room number 10
Room number 10 is like a porch and has an area of 9 meters. Water conduction grooves can also be seen in this room. This room, like Room 9, overlooks the valley and the mountain.
Rooms 11 and 12
Unlike Room 11, which is a cluttered room, Room 12 is a rectangular room with a reservoir-like space like Room One.
Room No. 13
This room is very similar to room number 12, except that it is larger. There is a small hole in the outer wall of Kogan Cave. In this room, the remains of a scalpel can be seen and a small reservoir that is full of water in winter.
Room No. 14
To enter room 14, you have to go through a small space with a short ceiling, which is possible with a special rotation. The room is the most special in Kogan Cave due to the rocking roof. Room No. 14 is completely excavated in the heart of the mountain and inside it is a rocking arch with an opening of 3 meters and a height of 2.30 meters. The arched roof prevents direct water from falling. In some parts of the walls of this space, niches can be seen.
Rooms 15 and 16
Rooms 15 and 16 are two small rooms that are very similar in size.
Use of Kogan Cave Rooms:
Currently, no information is available on the use of spaces inside the cave. But according to the specific features of each room, it can be guessed that they had the following uses.
- Storage spaces for water and food
- Communication spaces
- Religious spaces
- Watch spaces