The Parthians were the third group of Aryan tribes to enter the Iranian plateau and settle in eastern Iran. After the Seleucids came to power in Iran, they revolted against them and drove the Seleucids out of Iran. What makes the Parthians stand out among the tribes living in Iran is their special skill in archery on horses. The Parthian Empire was started by Arsaces I in 250 BC and was later ruled by 28 other kings. They ruled Iran for 270 years, which is one of the longest empires in Iran and the world. In this article, we want to introduce to you the 10 remaining famous historical sites of the Parthian Empire.
Nisa city – One of the most famous historical sites of the Parthian Empire
It is located near Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan. Archaeologists were looking for the Parthian kings’ cemetery, which they dug out of the ground. The city is divided into two parts, including the old Nisa and the new Nisa, which is the residence of the Parthian kings and has a pentagonal map. The most important relics of ancient Nisa are the square building, the circular temple, the temple tower, and the square house. The new city of Nisa has been the center of the city and was used by ordinary people. The first written documents related to the Parthian Empire were discovered under the palace of the city of Nisa, which contain 2800 strokes or pottery, written in cursive and related to gardening. Old Nisa is the only historical site of the Parthian Empire where works of architecture, art, and party coins have been found.
Merv city – other historical sites of the Parthian Empire in Turkmenistan
The site or city of Merv is in modern Turkmenistan and today it is called Mari. The area of this area is 20 hectares. Merv was an important center of weaving and pottery during the Parthians period, and a large number of clay statues have been found in this city, which are mostly related to women. The city is built in a circle. Many historical sites of the Parthian Empire built-in circle.
Kal Changal – Historical sites of the Parthian Empire in the deep valley of Kal Changal
Kal Changal is located in a deep valley in Birjand city. In the relatively high peaks of the mountains of this valley, statues and inscriptions in the Parthian Pahlavi language are engraved on polished stones. Three images and a number of inscriptions can be seen in this place. The most important of these roles is the image of a man fighting with a lion.
Qumis or Kumis – The most famous between historical sites of the Parthian Empire in Iran
Qumis or Kumis is located on Khorasan road between Semnan and Damghan city. David Stronach has described this area as the same Hecatompylos as the second capital of historical sites of the Parthian Empire. In this area, three important buildings related to the Parthian Empire were identified. Their plan is square and with a slight improvement in the center of the side, they have taken the shape of a cross. Hecatompylos was mostly a camp and according to historical sources, it was restored by Yazdgerd I, Sasanian king.
Persepolis Spring of historical sites of the Parthian Empire
During the excavation of this cemetery, 31 graves were identified. 24 bodies have been buried in two-part pottery coffins. Inside the tombs are gifts including personal decorations, jars, and toys. The only toy is a small sculpture of a horse made of baked pottery, its wooden wheels have rotted and disappeared over time.
Zahak Castle historical sites of the Parthian Empire
This area is located on the Tehran-Tabriz road, in the south of Hashtrood city. This complex is made of stone, gauge, and brick materials. The Qaranqo River flows near the site and has given it special geographical importance. The most interesting building in this area is the remains of a quadrangle. These four arches are made in 9 * 9 dimensions. The special feature of this building is the bricks used in its construction, which are similar to those seen in Assyria, which is arranged vertically and then plastered on the bricks.
Palmyra or Tadmor
Palmyra is located in Syria, northeast of Damascus. Palmyra is a Greek word meaning grove. The name Tadmor is written in the holy books of the Old and New Testaments. What mattered to the city of Palmyra was its commercial role and its transformation into a buffer zone between the Parthians and Roman empires. The most important monuments in the city of Palmyra are the temple of Baal, the building of the demon Kelshin, the tomb of the three brothers, etc.
Bardneshandeh is another historical sites of the Parthian Empire and a mountainous region located 16 km northeast of Masjed Soleiman and on the road from Masjed Soleiman to Shahid Abbaspour Dam. Bardneshandeh in the local dialect means embossed stone and its name is due to a stone with a height of 5.3 meters which was located near a small pool. What has made the Bardneshandeh controversial is the existence of a rectangular platform made of small and large uncut boulders that have different dimensions. Dry platform made without mortar. There is a temple in this area, which Ghirshman called a four-column temple. One of the remarkable things about this temple is its capitals, which have human motifs. Four human figures are engraved on all four sides of the capital.
It is a small and artificial hill with a height of three meters and is located seven kilometers southeast of Shush. The farmer accidentally found a small earthenware jar containing about 800 bronze coins. Some of these coins had traces of silver water. In this area, glazed coffins with the role of palm trees have been obtained, which are kept in the National Museum of Iran.
Shoghab historical sites of the Parthian Empire
Shoghab Cemetery is located in the Shoghab area of Bushehr. In this area, a number of clay and stone bones were found on the beach of historical sites of the Parthian Empire. These containers are in the form of spindles or torpedoes that contain human bones. The inside of these dishes is lined with bitumen. A similar example is found in Shush and Babylon.