By the death of the last King of the Ilkhanate, the country became turbulent, small and large dynasties were founded in every region of Iran, which always fought each other. Eventually, with the Timur invasion, all these local dynasties were extinct, the Timur invasion like the Mongol destroyed Iran in many aspects. By Timur’s conquests, The Timurid Empire was bordered from the west to Europe and from the east with the Chinese empire, he announced Samarkand as the capital of the empire.
After the death of Timur, the conflicts between his sons intensified for being Timur’s deputy. Eventually, five years later, Shah Rukh sat on the throne, and during his rule, people enjoyed relative welfare. He noticed to scientists and poets, during his rule Herat was chosen as the capital and became an important scientific, literary and artistic center and Mashhad was the same, one of the buildings that were built in this era was the Goharshad Mosque which is located in Mashhad.
After the death of Shah Rukh, many kings sat on the throne, most notably Sultan Husayn Bayqara, who ruled only Herat and its suburbs, and the rest of the areas that Timur had conquered were practically out of the Timurid Empire domination. After the death of Sultan Husayn, Badi al-Zaman became the king, a year later, after the attack of Muhammad Shybani (leader of Khanate of Bukhara) on the city of Herat, the city was captured and the Timurid Empire was extinct.